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|Title:||Green analytical method for simultaneous determination of salinity, carbonate and ammoniacal nitrogen in waters using flow injection coupled dual-channel C4D|
Diffusion in gases
Contactless conductivity detector
Dissolved carbon dioxide
Flow injection analysis systems
|Abstract:||A flow injection analysis system (FIA) for the simultaneous determination of salinity, carbonate and ammoniacal nitrogen has been developed and reported in this paper. FIA incorporating membrane units was used, not only for the separation of the gaseous carbon dioxide and ammonia, but also for on-line dilution in the salinity measurement. The sample was injected via a 10-port valve with two sample loops. One loop was used for salinity and carbonate measurements and the second loop for ammoniacal nitrogen determination. A dual-channel capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector was assembled in a single shielding box. Input voltage from the same AC power supply was fed to the input electrodes of both C4D cells. One channel of the C4D was used to monitor the change in conductivity of an acceptor stream that carried a zone of the water sample that has passed through the on-line dilution unit. Conductivity of this zone relates directly to the salinity of the sample. The same sample zone was next acidified to generate carbon dioxide gas that diffused through a hydrophobic membrane of the first gas diffusion (GD) unit. The zone of dissolved carbon dioxide in acceptor stream of water flowed into the same C4D cell as for the salinity measurement, but arriving at a later time. Concurrently, the second channel of the C4D monitored the change in conductivity of the acceptor stream in the second GD unit due to the diffusion of ammonia gas generated by the reaction of base with the sample injected from the second sample loop. The change in conductivity at this second C4D cell correlates with the concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen present in the sample. The proposed method is low cost, simple, rapid and sensitive. The limit of quantitation for salinity, carbonate and ammoniacal nitrogen are 0.31mmolL−1, 1.85 µmol L−1, respectively. Throughput of 20 samples h−1 for simultaneous analysis can be achieved with RSD of less than 3.8%. The system had been applied to the determination of salinity, carbonate and ammoniacal nitrogen in 15 water samples, with results in agreement with those obtained using comparison methods. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.|
|Appears in Collections:||Scopus 1983-2021|
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