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Title: Cost-effective paper-based electrochemical immunosensor using a label-free assay for sensitive detection of ferritin
Authors: Boonkaew S.
Teengam P.
Jampasa S.
Rengpipat S.
Siangproh W.
Chailapakul O.
Keywords: Analytic equipment
Cost benefit analysis
Cost effectiveness
Ink jet printing
Risk assessment
Risk perception
Concentration-dependent manners
Differential pulse voltammetry
Electrochemical immunosensors
Electrochemical response
Electrochemical signals
Long-term storage stability
Paper-based analytical devices
Sensitive detection
Issue Date: 2020
Abstract: Ferritin, a blood cell protein containing iron, is a crucial biomarker that is used to estimate the risk assessment of iron deficiency anemia. For point-of-care analysis, a reliable, cost-effective, selective, sensitive, and portable tool is extremely necessary. In this study, a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for detecting ferritin using a paper-based analytical device (ePAD) was created. The device pattern was custom designed onto filter paper to successfully fabricate a deliverable immunosensor. Graphene oxide was first modified onto the working electrode using an inkjet printing technique. An activation step of the electrode surface was then performed using standard 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) chemistry. Anti-ferritin antibodies were covalently immobilized onto the amine-reactive ester surface. The amount of ferritin was monitored by observing the electrochemical signal of the selected redox couple by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In the presence of ferritin, the sensor showed a considerable decrease in electrochemical response in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, there was no observable change in current response detected in the absence of ferritin. The current response provided a good correlation with ferritin concentrations in the range of 1 to 1000 ng mL-1, and the limit of detection (3SD/slope) was found to be 0.19 ng mL-1. This fabricated immunosensor offered good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term storage stability. In addition, this proposed immunosensor was successfully applied to detect ferritin in human serum with satisfactory results. The promising results suggested that this handmade paper-based immunosensor may be an alternative device for the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. © 2020 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
ISSN: 32654
Appears in Collections:Scopus 1983-2021

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