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Title: The Natural History of Congenital X-Linked Retinoschisis and Conversion between Phenotypes over Time
Authors: Wood E.H.
Lertjirachai I.
Ghiam B.K.
Koulisis N.
Moysidis S.N.
Dirani A.
Drenser K.A.
Capone A.
Trese M.T.
Keywords: dorzolamide
congenital X linked retinoschisis
disease course
disease severity
follow up
longitudinal study
major clinical study
neovascular glaucoma
optical coherence tomography
priority journal
retina detachment
retina disease
retrospective study
risk factor
visual acuity
vitreous hemorrhage
X chromosome
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of congenital X-linked retinoschisis (CXLRS) and to assess disease stability or progression over time. Design: Retrospective case series at a single-center, tertiary care, pediatric retina practice. Participants: One hundred two eyes of 51 patients with CXLRS. Methods: The clinical examinations, fundus photographs, and OCT images of all patients with CXLRS were assessed. Eyes that initially demonstrated combined retinoschisis–retinal detachments and those with large, centrally overhanging schisis cavities were excluded from the analysis (n = 49) because they underwent surgery, which precluded observation of the natural disease course. Main Outcome Measures: Stability or conversion of CXLRS phenotype over time. Results: Fifty-three eyes met inclusion criteria for observation of natural disease history over time. At the time of diagnosis, 7.5% of eyes showed type 1 disease (n = 4), 17% showed type 2 disease (n = 9), 66% showed type 3 disease (n = 35), and 9.5% showed type 4 disease (n = 5). Mean length of follow-up was 7.4 years. A total of 7.5% of eyes demonstrated a combined retinoschisis–retinal detachment requiring surgery (n = 4), whereas 1.8% demonstrated a large, centrally overhanging schisis cavity requiring surgery (n = 1). Overall, 83% of eyes (n = 44) remained the same type without conversion or development of a complication requiring surgery. The remaining 17% of eyes (n = 9) experienced some type of change from their baseline diagnosis, with 7.5% (n = 4) converting between phenotypes and 9.5% (n = 5) demonstrating a complication requiring surgery; 3.75% of eyes (n = 2) converted from type 2 to 3 and 7.5% of eyes (n = 4) converted from type 3 to a combined retinoschisis–retinal detachment with mean time to conversion of 4.07 years. Conclusions: This longitudinal study conveyed the natural history of CXLRS. Congenital X-linked retinoschisis displayed long-term stability in 83% of eyes with conversion or progression of the disease to a more severe phenotype in the remaining cases. Type 3 CXLRS was a risk factor for the development of a combined retinoschisis–retinal detachment and may benefit from closer follow-up. © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology
ISSN: 24686530
Appears in Collections:SCOPUS 1983-2021

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